Certiorari - to be informed
"A writ or order by which a higher court reviews a decision of a lower court."
If the Supreme court would like to review a decision of a lower court,
Type tethey may issue a writ of certiorari.xt here
Mandamus - we command
"Orders a public agency or governmental body to perform an act required
by law when it has neglected or refused to do so. "
If a state agency refuses to release public information, they can
be subject of petitions for a writ of mandamus
Moot - an issue presenting no real controversy.
"Refers to a subject for academic argument. It is an abstract question that does not
arise from existing facts or rights."
Moot courts are common in law schools where students write
briefs on hypothetical cases.
In Personam - directed toward a particular person
In a case against a specific individual, the judgement only applies to that person.
If a court does not have In Personam jurisdiction, it's rulings can not
be enforced on a party.
Stare Decisis - to stand by things decided
Courts will adhere to the precedent.
Courts will abide to decided cases unless the court finds it necessary to
overrule that case. This is stare decisis.
Writ of Habeas Corpus - produce the body
"A court order to a person (prison warden) or agency (institution) holding someone
in custody to deliver the imprisoned individual to the court issuing the order."
This ensures that you are guaranteed a trial vs being stuck in a prison
for many years against your rights.
Res Judicata - a matter [already] judged
Double Jeopardy is not allowed.
After a final judgement, the matter can not be reopened with Res Judicata.
In Forma Pauperis - in the form of a pauper
Entitles a party to waived court fees if the person can not afford it.
Sometimes the cost of a court case is too large to pay. However, not
granting a person the right to trial would be unconstitutional, so In Forma
Pauperis grants us this privilege.
Amicus Curiae - friend of the court
Someone who is not a party in a case, but who bears information which
helps the court in their decision.
An amicus nay submit a brief to advocate for or against a legal change