Effects of Processes Going Wrong
DNA and RNA polymerase have a 'proofreading' function which can go through and replace incorrect nucleotides. During interphase, the G1 and G2 stages include critical checkpoints which go through DNA or RNA to look for errors.
What control measures are in place?
There are various mutagens in the environment that can change DNA by either speeding up the rate of errors or breaking DNA strands. This greatly increases the chance for genetic mutations.
What can cause missteps?
What are some effects of these missteps?
If there is an error in the DNA, there is an error in the RNA, and therefore, there is an error in the protein. This results in genetic disorders, and things like cancer. If cells have faulty DNA, they may also produce similarly mutated cells as a result of mitosis/meiosis. Point mutations are when a nucleotide is replaced. Frameshift mutations are when a nucleotide is inserted or deleted. Frameshift mutations are usually much more devastating.
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