- 17th-19th Hindu Renaissance - 1895 Vedanta Society founded by Vivekananda. Promotes Hinduism as a world religion and India as a single nation. 1400-1700 Europeans arrive in India to pursue colonization and commercial goals within the Hindu world. - 1919-1948 The era of Mahatma Gandhis profound influence on Hinduism and India. - 1948-1990 India and Pakistan become independent countries and enter the modern era. Both possess nuclear weapons and suffer from religious tension among their Muslim and Hindu populations.