by: Francis Odulio
Karl Heinrich Marx
The most dedicated advocate of communism, he published his most popular work, "The Communist Manifesto", with Friedrich Engels. He believed that workers will have a bloody revolution against the factory owners with the result having a classless society and everyone will share land and money, a.k.a. communism.
Eli Whitney popularized interchangeable parts by using them for muskets he made. He also invented the cotton gin which maintained slavery in the south and made them dependent on cotton for trade.
Interchangeable parts for muskets
A Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, the Newcomen steam engine he improved became important to the Industrial Revolution. He started working on maintaining and repairing scientific equipment in the university before forming a partnership with John Craig in 1759.
Watt Steam Engine
Alexander Graham Bell
He invented the telephone which he later improved with the photophone which allowed sound to be communicated with a beam of light. Considering that the telephone is one of the greatest inventions of all time, it made him rich, allowing him to continue studying science.
His most famous work, "An Essay on the Principle of Population", argued that not everyone will survive overpopulation. He claimed this would happen because there will be more people to feed than food to eat.
The tin foil phonography, his first invention, recorded messages eventually being used for a lot of things. His greatest challenge was to develop a practical light bulb producing light using heat, or being incandescent. Rather than producing one simple light bulb, he made an electric incandescent lighting system.
First electric, incandescent light bulb
Thomas Savery invented the first steam engine in 1698, which relied on steam to create a vacuum and use a pipe to pull it upwards.
Thomas Newcomen improved it by using a piston and cylinder where one end opens to the atmosphere to release steam. While it was inefficient, it was reliable and easy to maintain.
James Watt made it better by adding several improvements such as the steam jacket around the cylinder and a separated steam condenser and piston chambers.
While John Fitch was able to successfully build and test a steamboat in 1787, he was unable to explain the economic benefit of using the steam engine as a power source.
Robert Fulton was able to make the STEAMBOAT popular and sold a lot of them. This allowed for faster trade and increased commercial trading.
Samuel Morse developed the telegraph in the 1830's and the 1840's. Electricity was used to send messages across, while receivers would translate.
Telegraph paved the way for faster communication, so telegraph lines were set up all over the country.
The Morse Code was developed for use in the telegraphs. Receivers would translate them by initially seeing the paper, eventually relying on the sounds they hear because it was faster.
It was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1870 to improve communications.
It improved on the idea used by Samuel Morse for the telegraph.
The idea started when Bell found out he could hear multiple sounds over one wire. The telephone came from the idea of multiple telegraph messages at once.
The rich started taking over the lands of the poor to have more crops to sell.
This forced the evicted families to move to cities and work in factories with machines, starting the Industrial Revolution.
They worked in bad conditions including noisy machines and bad smells. They also had low wages which forced children to work as well.
Living conditions were equally bad with several people packed in one tenement.
These caused workers to work together to demand for higher wages and better working conditions.
Since the rich benefited more than the workers and had better lifestyles,
Karl Marx thought the government should have total control of businesses.
In this system, everyone gets the same thing and all properties are owned by the state. The government controls the economy. However, this system only lead to bad economy and dictators.