Revision Guide: Beliefs and Values
By Nabiha Islam 104
Tawhid and Shirk
Tawhid is the faith that muslims have, the oneness of Allah. The basis of Islam is brought forwards from this belief and many others within it. Muslims must follow and adhere that Allah is one and has no partners, as stated in the Qur'an, the holy book in Islam. It is the most important belief in Islam and contradicting this belief is the greatest sin a muslim can commit, shirk. Shirk is committed when Allah is said to have a partner, degraded to human level or when objects are worshipped, i.e. idol worshipping. If a convert has previously committed shirk, the sin may be reconsidered, but this relies on the mercy and compassion that Allah will have towards them. Additionally, Allah is all knowing, omni-scient, all loving, omni-benevolent, and all powerful, omni-potent. If any of these is compared to humans, shirk is committed. It is the absolute worst sin a muslim can enact.
Creativity of Allah
Allah's power is more immense than his creativity; the universe and everything in it. This is the gift that Allah has given to humans for them to look after. Although Allah created the world and already knows what is going to happen, He still gave humans the free will to choose as they please. This means that Allah is unconditonal and we as humans cannot fully understand the purpose for which Allah has done certain things or made them happen. Humans should have nothing to fear but Allah and cherish the life He has gifted. Science has discovered many things but nothing compared to Allah. Before the discoveries made by scientists, e.g. the shape of the earth, Allah had already stated them in the Qur'an. For example, ''After that He smoothed out the earth.'' (Qur'an, 79:30). Before the era of scientists actually figuring out that the earth isnt flat, the Qur'an already had the answers which was revealed way before scientists had found out. This shows that the creativity of Allah is only what He has control of and it is He who determines life and everything within it.
A khalifah is a custodian or steward which Allah has appointed to as humans to look after the world. Although Allah has created the world, he gave humans the role of looking after his creation. Humans are left with Allah's gift and everything in it. It is their duties to fulfill their roles as khalifahs and take responsibililty towards the Earth to seperate the differences between Him and us. It is obvious for us to fulfill our duties towards Allah and this is one of the ways in which we do this.
Mercy and compassion of Allah
Many times in the Qur'an, the mention of how merciful and compassionate Allah is very frequent. at the start of each surah, 'bismillah hir rahmanir rahim' is said. This translated means "In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful" He is the most compassiomate and merciful that there is. it is also said that no-one is as forgiving as him, so contradicting this also counts as shirk. His 99 names describe His character; two of which are emphasised as His compassion and mercy.
Al-Qadr is the belief that Allah is in control of all future events. Despite this, humans still have the free will to do as they wsh, which influences the overall decision that Allah makes. This encounters as the fate of a human; so either heaven or hell. This isnt solely dependant on Allah but also consists of the choices that humans make.
Muslims have the belief that they are accompanied throughout life with two angels; one on the right shoulder to note the good deeds and one on the left shoulder to note the bad deeds. Angels are heavenly beings with no free will. They only do as Allah pleases and assist to what He says. They are made of light but can sometimes take human form. Jinns are the same but they have free will and are made from fire.
Risalah is the belief of muslims about the prophets. In total, there are 25 prophets. The most famous prophet is the last prophet, Muhammed. He was the one to which the Qur'an was revealed on the night of revelation. Prophets convey the messages of Allah. These messages remain unchanged and are completely truthful. These messages are of peace and submission. Prophets are entirely dedicated to Allah as there is one prophet who had almost sacrificed his son's life for Allah.
Holy books other than the Qur'an
There are four main holy books which consists of the corrupted message of the uncorrupted book, the Qur'an. Apart from the Qur'an, the other books are the Zabur, Tawrat and Injil. These books were revealed to different prophets but as time passed by, messages of the holy books had started to become altered. This lead Allah to send the last Prophet to reveal the last holy book, the Qur'an. It was revealed on the night of revelation and the message of Allah has remained in the Qur'an since the revelation.
Revelation of the Qur'an to Mohammed (pbuh)
This was the time when the holy book was revealed to the prophet Muahmmed for the first time. Before the prescence of the Muhammed, there was a period of time known as Jahiliyyah. This was a time of ignorance towards God and the revelation of the Qur'an had changed this. However, things like these still exist but are quite uncommon. For example athiests. Despite the guidance of holy books, there is still igorance. All in all, times has reformed from Jahiliyyah to a much better period of time.
Akhirah (Muslim beliefs about life after death)
Muslims believe that after death, there will be a day of Judgement where Allah decides whether a person should go to hell or heaven. The factors of our lives decide the fate which we face after death. It also depends on the mercy and compassion which Allah shows upon us.