In 1969 Todorov produced his own narrative theory which he believed that it applied to any film as they all follow the same pattern. There are 5 stages the Narrative can progress through... 1. Equilibrium = this is where the story will display a happy start and the majority of the characters are content 2. A Disruption = this is where a problem will occur or something will disrupt their happiness 3. Realisation = everyone has realised the disorder and the problem has occured / can become chaos 4. Restored Order = this is the part of the plot when the characters attempt to repair the damage and restore the problem 5. Restore Equilibrium = this is where the problem is resolved and normality can resume again Examples, The Simpsons, Die Hard, Titanic etc. This structure can also appear in a documentary to entertain the audience through a variety of episodes/ series.
Valdimir Propp is a Russian theorist who studied and analysed fairytales. He argued that whatever differences there might be in a story you can group together the characters and their actions into 7/8 roles which are... The Villain - who opposes or actively blocks the hero's quest The Hero - character/ subject that seeks something The Donor - provides an object with magical qualitites The Helper - who aids the hero The Princess - acts as the reward for the hero and the object of the villains plots The Dispatcher - who sends the hero on the quest via a message The False Hero - who disrupts the heros success by making false claims & the Father - rewards the hero for his effort Propp views these as providing a narrative structure / function for the story. E.g. Star Wars This theory can be shown in documentaries like Supersize me. For example, McDonalds is the Villain, Morgan is the Hero, his girlfriend is the Princess, doctor or experts are the donor/helper etc.
Levi - Strauss
Claude Levi-Strauss studied myths and legends from around the world and observed narrative structures. He said that we make sense of the world, people and events by seeing and using binary opposites (reflect the values, beliefs and myths of a culture). Narratives are organised around the conflict between this, for example ... Good Vs. Evil Peace Vs. War Black Vs. White Hope Vs. Fear Weak Vs. Strong This theory can appear in documentaries as conflict between individuals appear all the time. For example, Benefit Street = Poor Vs Rich, People on Benefits Vs Government
Roland Barthes is a French semiologist and argued that narrative structure is told through a series of codes that are used to control the way in which information is given to the audience. He separates this into five codes which are Enigma, Action, Symbolic, Semic and Cultural. Enigma Codes = they are a narrative device that teases the audience by presenting a puzzle or riddle to be solved throughout the clip Action Codes = this is where a resolution is produced through action e.g. fight / shoot out / argument Symbolic = (connotation) Semic = (denotation) Cultural = the audience is able to recognise the narrative device as being part of a culture
After researching the four theorist of Narrative Structure I have learnt that Levi-Strauss binary opposites theory is the most appealing to our documentary. This is because I feel that the other 3 theorists aren't as suited to our documentary about technological devices (mobile phones) as Strauss becuase his theory would help us to compare, criticise and recieve different opinions that will be positive and negative. For example, we would most likely be asking Young Vs. Old, High End Mobile Companies Vs. Phone case shop, Parents Vs. Children (Students). Our target audience is a wide variety and this can be shown when using Strauss's theory because we haven't narrowed our selves down to having specific people for specific roles. We will be including young children and their parents because they will have different opinions on the technological devices than their children which will help with our research and in order to represent the binary narrative structure. This will be appealing to all age groups with different ethicities so that we have a wide appeal.