by: Francis Odulio
WHAT IS IMPERIALISM?
Imperialism is politically, economically, or culturally controlling another country. New imperialism was the time when the Western countries took over other nations in the 19th and 20th century.
MOTIVATIONS OF IMPERIALISM
Nationalism helped contribute to imperialism. When one country got a new colony, another country would want a colony to "compete" with the other country for power.
Europeans also felt that they had a duty of sharing the objects they have, such as medicine , law and the Christian religion.
Europeans also believed that they are superior to other races and Darwin's theory about survival of the fittest. Another motivation was the need for resources like coal for the Industrial Revolution.
Western nations now had better weaponry thanks to the Industrial Revolution. They also now had more organized governments.
People also now had better knowledge of medicine, allowing them to cure diseases acquired from other countries.
The Berlin conference was a meeting in Berlin, Germany, to peacefully split Africa between the countries Belgium, France, Britain, Italy, Portugal, and Spain.
The Europeans didn't care for the tribal boundaries; the boundaries were based on the geography of the region. Friendly tribes were purposely separated and enemy tribes were also purposely put in one colony.
This led to unity problems and civil wars.
THE SUEZ CANAL
The Suez canal is a waterway connecting the Mediterranean and Red seas.
This enabled faster travel from European countries to Africa.
THE SEPOY REBELLION
The Sepoy rebellion was caused by Indians who worked for the British East India company, or sepoys.
The cause: the Indians believed the cartridges had animmal fat greased on it from pigs or cows. This became a problem since Hindus considered cows sacred and Muslims didn't eat meat.
The British government sent troops to crush the rebellion. Instead of using the British East India Company to control India, the British directly controlled India through their troops.
The balance of trade is the difference between the number the country sells and buys from other countries.
A trade surplus happens when a country sells more merchandise than it buys from other countries.
A trade deficit happens when a country buys more merchandise than it sells to other countries.
The British started smuggling opium into China to balance the trade deficit.
China sent a letter warning the British to stop smuggling opium into the country. When the British ignored the warning, the Opium war happened.
The British easily crushed China because of their technological superiority and forced China into a treaty to end the war.
The treaty forced China to open 5 more ports for trade and gave Hong Kong to the British. This also encouraged other European countries to demand China to sign unequal treaties with them.
The peasants started to revolt when the Qing dynasty proved that they can't protect China from foreigners. The Taiping rebellion was the most violent out of all of them. About 20-30 million people died by the time it was ended.
The leader of the rebellion was Hong Xiuquan. He wanted to remove the Qing dynasty from power and replace it.
The Chinese crushed the rebellion with help from other European countries, which only meant one thing: more European pressure.
China had less power than before and Russia got some lands in the northern part of China.
The Boxer Uprising was a rebellion led by the Righteous Harmonious Fists to drive out the foreigners from China.
The Chinese government managed to crush the uprising, but like the Taiping rebellion, with help from Western countries.
China was forced to support Westernization, and by the 1900's, China was now ruled by multiple European countries.